Below is my short viewpoints:
According to the supply of mechanical energy, biped walking can be classified into two categories: one is called actuated biped walking and the other is called non-actuated biped walking. However, our main concern here is about the stability or balance, which is a challenge to both planning and control of biped walking by humanoid robots.
Interestingly, in the domain of biped walking, there are two types of stability or balance. One is called static stability or balance, in which the zero-moment point (ZMP) is always within the support zone of a humanoid robot's foot or feet (assume that there is no other contact point between a humanoid robot and the environment). The other is called dynamic stability or balance, in which the body supported by biped maintains its state of motion. For example, in the sagittal plane of a humanoid robot, a dynamic stability is achieved with a successive clock-wise rotations of legs for backward walking or a successive of counter-clock-wise rotations of legs for forward walking. And, in the coronal plane of a humanoid robot, a dynamic stability is achieved with periodic oscillations of clock-wise and counter-clock-wise rotations of legs.
Hence, on the basis of these two types of stability or balance, we can classify biped walking into the following two categories: static walking which maintains static stability, and dynamic walking which maintains dynamic stability.
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